Psychology Mid Exam – Addis Ababa University

PART I: Multiple Choice Items

I. As psychoanalysis is to unconscious mind, _____ is to covet behavior

A. humanistic
B. behaviorism
C. socio-cultural
D. cognitive

2. As far as the characteristics of learning are concerned, one of the following is NOT true. Learning is

A. passive
B. pervasive
C. purposeful
D. multifaceted

3. While sensation involves ____, perception involves _____ respectively

A. organization, coordination
B. identification, translation
C. stimulation, interpretation
D. comprehension, information

4. When we recall personal experiences such as who spoke at a party over the weekend or what we did on our last birthday, we are recalling _____ memory

A. semantic
B. procedural
C. episodic
D. non- declarative

5. In psychological research, one advantage of experiments over correlational studies is that experiments generally allow one to study _____ 

A. a large group of people
B. cause and effect relationship
C. an individual in depth
D. changes in people over time

6. Which of the following behaviors can best be described as overt behavior?

A. Good feeling about oneself
B. Good attitude towards others
C. Remembering a past event
D. Explaining about a future plan

7. One of the following is NOT true about learning. Learning:

A. is a change in behavior
B. depends on practice
C. can be observed directly
D. results in an enduring change

8.Consider what happens as you finish a conversation with a friend and she begins to walk away from you. As you watch her walk down the street, the image on your retina becomes smaller and smaller. Despite the very real change in the retinal image, you do not perceive her as getting smaller. This illustrates _____

A. shape constancy
B. size constancy
C. location constancy
D. brightness constancy

9. Which goal of psychology emphasizes on the causes of human behavior?

A. Prediction
B. Description
C. Controlling
D. Explanation

10. Your psychology instructor praises the students sometimes after one correct answer, other times after three correct answers and so on. This type of schedule of reinforcement is _____

A. variable ratio schedule
B. fixed ratio schedule
C. fixed interval schedule
D. variable interval schedule

11. According to Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin’s model of memory, while a fast-decaying store of visual information is referred to as _____, a fast-decaying store of auditory information is known as _____ respectively

A. semantic memory, episodic memory
B. echoic memory, iconic memory
C. iconic memory, echoic memory
D. episodic memory, semantic memory

12. An early school of thought in psychology that uses introspection method to discover elementary units of the mind is _____

A. functionalism
B. structuralism
C. gestalt
D. psychoanalysis

13. Assume that after Debela was conditioned to fear a black lion, he also displays fear responses to a black dog. This is a typical example of _____

A. stimulus discrimination
B. stimulus generalization
C. spontaneous recovery
D. acquisition

14. Which of the following sub-fields of psychology is more concerned with diagnosis and treatment of severe mental disorders?

A. Counseling psychology
B. Experimental psychology
C. Health psychology
D. Clinical psychology

15. According to Albert Bandura, learned behaviors are transformed into performance at the phase of _____

A. reproduction
B. retention
C. attention
D. motivation

16. Shiluka read a list of 30 vocabulary words only once. If he is typical and shows the serial position effect, we would expect that the words he remembers two days later are _____

A. at the beginning of the list
B. at the end of the list
C. in the middle of the list
D. distributed throughout the list

17. A professional who applies psychological principles to improve the legal system is a/an _____ psychologist

A. Clinical
B. Developmental
C. Forensic
D. Educational

18. Which one of the following terms are best associated with their meanings?

A. Retrieving -> converting information; encoding -> accessing information; storing -> holding information
B. storing -> converting information; retrieving -> accessing information; encoding -> holding information
C. Encoding -> converting information; storing -> accessing information; retrieving -> holding information
D. Encoding -> converting information; retrieving -> accessing information; storing -> holding information

19. Which of the following best summarizes the humanistic approach?

A. People have the freedom to choose their own destiny
B. Consciousness is understood by examining its basic elements
C. Ethnicity, gender, and culture are the primary determinants of behavior  
D. People are influenced by conflict between their biological instincts and society’s demands

20. Abel a grade 6th student, his academic result decreases from time to time because of his time management skill problem. To ameliorate this problem a psychologist plans to apply home based behavioral modification technique with the help family members. One strategy to enhance Abel’s studying habit was eliminating responsibilities that Abel does not want to do such as cleaning that house after he engage on studying. In this case which technique was implemented by the psychologist to enhance Abel’s time management skill?  

A. Negative punishment
B. Positive reinforcement
C. Negative reinforcement
D. positive punishment

21. According to Gestalt principle of perceptual organization, people tend to group objects together due to their closeness. This is the principle of:

A. Closure
B. Similarity
C. Continuity
D. Proximity

22. In the few days of each New Year, many of us continue to write the date using the Old Year instead of the New Year. This is primarily due to _____

A. decay of memory trace
B. proactive interference
C. retroactive interference
D. motivated forgetting

23. In the after-conditioning phase of Pavlov’s experiment, the dog’s salivation is _____

A. conditioned response
B. unconditioned response
C. unconditioned stimulus
D. conditioned stimulus

24. Consider the following hypothesis: “Exposure to corporal punishment is more likely to lead to aggression.” In this hypothesis, aggression is the ____, and exposure to corporal punishment is the _____ respectively

A. confounding variable; independent variable
B. independent variable; dependent variable
C. independent variable; confounding variable
D. dependent variable; independent variable

25. Limat tried to unscramble the letters GYLOPYHCOS for 20 minutes to spell a word, but she was not successful. While she walking to class, the answer suddenly came to her that the word was PSYCHOLOGY. This exemplifies _____

A. classical conditioning
B. operant conditioning
C. insight
D. the law of effect

26. A woman preparing Doro Wot (a special Ethiopian dish) is not as sensitive to the smell of the Doro Wot as a stranger walking by near her house. Her insensitivity can best be explained by the concept of _____

A. sensory adaptation
B. sensory input
C. sensory threshold
D. difference threshold

27. Sara was raped by her close relative when she was 13. However, due to the negative cultural connotation, she did not tell the issue to anyone. She forgets what was happened to her and consider herself as a virgin till now. Which theory explains this type of forgetting?

A. Decay
B. Cue dependent
C. Displacement
D. Motivated forgetting

Part II: After Reading the Following Questions carefully, Fill in the Blank Spaces with the Correct Words or Phrases

28. According to classical conditioning, reappearance of a conditioned response refers to _____

29. A mechanism in which bits of information are combined into meaningful units so that more information can be held in short term memory is known as _____

30. The “ability to know events” without any sensory contact is known as _____

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