Psychology Mid Exam – Jimma University

Part I. Write true if the statement is correct or false if it is incorrect

1. learning takes place when neutral stimulus changed to conditioned stimulus

2. The criticality of early experience is viewpoint of Gestalt psychology

3. The process whereby stimulation of receptor cells sends nerve impulses to the brain is perception

4. A decreased sensitivity in a stimulus after prolonged and constant exposure is sensory threshold

5. Psychologists study behaviors with common senses

6. Learning takes place through Passive movement of organism

7. Behaviorists do have a common view point on the role of reinforcement in learning process

8. Figure-ground perception is stable and irreversible

9. Both Punishment and negative reinforcement equally help to rid out unwanted behavior

10. Extinction is the initial pint of acquiring behaviors change.

Part II. Match the right classical conditioning principle listed under column B to its expression stated under column A. a principle may or may not be used more than once

Column A

1. Is the result of frequently presentation of CS with the absence at UCS

2. It is a sudden re-happening of the extincted behavior            

3. A once raped woman categorized every man as a rapist

4. A once raped woman blamed the rapist man only

5. It happens when a preschool child is unable to differentiate between the letters N & M

6. It happens when a preschool child is able to distinguish between the small letters b&d

Column B

A. Extinction

B. Stimulus discrimination

C. Spontaneous recovery

D. Stimulus generalization

Part III. Choose the correct alternative for each of the following questions

7. One of the following thoughts of psychology is primitive and outdated.

A. Psychodynamic
B. Behavioral
C. Humanistic
D. Structuralism  

8. The first psychological method used by early psychologists was

A. Introspection
B. Case study
C. Survey study
D. Correlational

9. One may not be a psychological variable to perceptual selectivity

A. Personal set
B. Personal expectancy
C. Stimulus intensity
D. Personal motive

10. It is common knowledge that the more you study, the higher you grade will be. What kind of correlation is this relationship?

A. Positive
B. Negative
C. Zero
D. No relationship

11. The use of rewards, punishments. and positive reinforcement is an example of which field of psychology?

A. Personality
B. Social
C. Cognitive
D. Behavioral
E. Psychoanalytic

12. One of the fallowing is an umbrella term for the rest

A. Reinforcement schedule
B. interval reinforcement schedule  
C. Ratio reinforcement schedule
D. Fixed interval schedule

13.Which of the following statement is odd?

A. Gestalt psychology proposes psychology to study the whole mind
B. Psychoanalysis proposes psychology to study conscious mind
C. Structuralism school proposes psychology to study elements of mind
D. Behaviorism proposes psychology to study the observable behavior

14. 0ne of the following schools of psychology is incorrectly matched with its central theme

A. Compound mind – functionalism
B. Conscious mind – behaviorism
C. Adaptation – structuralism
D. Overt behavior – psychoanalysis

15. Of the following alternatives one is odd

A. Sensation
B. Sensory threshold
C. Sensory adaptation
D. Absolute threshold  

16. One of the following is not correct about sensation process

A. It is the window to either internal or external environment
B. It is the active process to transfer stimuli to brain
C. It is the process of receiving stimuli from environment
D. It is the process that connects us to the external contexts

17.  The perceptual process that helps you to input a certain stimuli in your conscious experience is

A. Perceptual organization 
B. Perceptual selectivity
C. Perceptual interpretation
D. Perception depth

18. The reinforcement schedule in which the organism is reinforced for the response is

A. Reinforcement schedule
B. Interval schedule
C. Fixed schedule
D. Continuous schedule

19. The reinforcement schedule in which the organism is reinforced for the nth time is

A. Reinforcement schedule
B. Interval schedule
C. Fixed schedule
D. Continuous schedule  

20. The image of a given object focused on your retina vary in size, shape and brightness. Yet you will continue to perceive the object as a stable in size, shape, and brightness because of  

A. perceptual constancy
B. depth perception
C. Perceptual illusion
D. Figure-ground perception

21. Which of the following alternative consists of the correct perceptual procedures from last to first?

A. Selectivity -> Organization -> interpretation  
B. Organization -> Selectivity -> Interpretation
C. Interpretation -> Organization -> Selectivity
D. Interpretation -> Selectivity -> Organization

22. Dr. Elisabeth Is a medical doctor in Jima university specialized hospital. She is one of the busiest doctors of the specialized hospital. However, she has a fixed time to watch soccer games every weekend. Dr. Elisabeth feels a good sense from one thing while watching a soccer game, the synergy between a player with the ball and the rectangular green field of the stadium. Particularly, she feels surprised in how the green field exposes the player to the eyes of the audience. In this case, therefore green field and the player with the ball are respectively

A. figure and ground for Dr. Elisabeth
B. Ground alone for Dr. Elisabeth
C. Ground and figure for Dr. Elisabeth
D. figure alone for Dr. Elisabeth

23. Based on the above question the relationship between the rectangular green field and the player with the ball becomes

A. Ground-figure relationship
B. Ground-ground relationship  
C. Figure-figure relationship  
D. Figure-ground relationship

24. Which of the fallowing psychologist add to others?

A. John Watson
B. Evan Pavlov
C. Burrhus Frederic Skinner
D. Albert Bandura

25. Which Branches of Psychology helps individuals with less severe psychological and behavioral problems?

A. Health Psychology
B. Clinical Psychology
C. Counseling psychology
D. Developmental Psychology

26, As a car drives away, it projects a smaller and smaller on your retina. Although the retinal image grows smaller, you do not perceive the car as shrinking because of

A. Shape constancy  
B. Size continuity  
C. Size constancy
D. Shape continuity
E. Size-perception

27. “Give me a dozen healthy infants and my own special world to bring them up in, and I will guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist… lawyer, doctor …” What psychological approach would support this statement?

A. Cognitive
B. Structural
C. Behavioral
D. Psychoanalytic

28. Detect potentially important change in your environment while ignoring unchanging aspects of it implies

A. Sensory adaptation
B. Difference threshold
C. Absolute threshold
D. Sensory deprivation

29. An operant conditioning procedure that involves the positive reinforcement of successive approximations of an Initially unlikely behavior to eventually bring about that behavior is known as

A. Shaping
B. Primary reinforcement
C. Negative reinforcement
D. Secondary reinforce  

30. Witch of the following is true of classical conditioning?

A. UCR produces the UCS
B. UCS produces UCR
C. UCR produces the CS
D. CR produces the CSE. CS produces the UCS

31. Shiferra sells mobile phone for a living. His payment depends on how many phones he sold. What schedule of reinforcement is Shiferra being paid with?

A. Variable interval
B. Fixed Interval
C. Variable ration
D. Fixed ration

Part IV. Read the following case carefully then fill the blank space for each of the next concepts

1. Jimma university medicine students proposed to study the impact of COVID-19 vaccine on blood pressure of ten diabetic males taking medical treatments in Jimma referral hospital. They categorized the individuals into two groups those who will take the vaccine and those who will take water injection instead of the true vaccine. The students’ major intention will be to investigate as if the vaccine increase or decreases the blond pressure of the diabetic persons. Based on this information answer the following questions

A. The independent variable is ___
B. The dependent variable is ___
C. The control group is ___
D. The experimental group is ___

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