Psychology Mid Exam – Haramaya University

Part I: Write “True” if the statement is correct and “False” if the statement is incorrect

1. We use monocular cues to determine closeness and binocular cues to determine farness

2. A researcher who wants to establish evidence for a cause-effect relationship between variables may use correlational research

3. Humanistic psychologists believe that each person is the chief architect of his/her behavior

4. Operant conditioning is considered as an independent form of learning

5. The amount of change required to notice the change in a stimulus is called the just noticeable difference.

Part II: Read the following questions carefully and choose the correct from the alternatives given

1. Which one of the following best describes the field of developmental psychology?

A. The study of how we grow and change from conception to death
B. The study of how we grow and change in infancy and childhood
C. The study of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial growth in children
D. The study of emotions, personality, and social relationships

2. Which one of the following is a learned behavior?

A. Baby crawling
B. Spider spinning a web
C. Fear of spiders
D. Pulling your hand away after touching a hot object

3. Which schedule of reinforcement results in the slowest acquisition of behavior?

A. Fixed ratio
B. Fixed interval
C. Variable ratio
D. Variable interval

4. A cup of milk would require a certain amount of sugar before you could detect a sweet taste. This example indicates ____

A. Absolute threshold
B. Difference threshold  
C. Sensory threshold
D. Threshold

5. Which of the following psychologists are capable of examining the validity of eyewitness testimony?

A. Counseling psychologists
B. Health psychologists
C. Clinical psychologists
D. Forensic psychologists

6. On a recent visit to the doctor, Kedir was given a painful injection. Since then, Kedir not only refuses to go to the same doctor, but also will not go to see any doctor or dentist kedir’s refusal behavior is an example of ____ 

A. Stimulus generalization
B. Stimulus discrimination
C. Extinction
D. punishment

7. The process of becoming less sensitive to unchanging stimulus is referred to as ____

A. Sensory deprivation
B. Signal detection
C. Sensory overload
D. Sensory adaptation

8. Classical conditioning differs from operant conditioning in that

A. The learner plays a more active role in classical conditioning
B. Behavior learned in classical conditioning is deliberate & goal directed
C. The response almost occurs prior to the stimulus in classical conditioning
D. The response in classical conditioning is reflexive

9. If you had sight in only one eye, which of the following depth cues could you NOT use?

A. Texture gradient
B. Convergence
C. Interposition
D. Shading

10. The schedule of reinforcement associated with playing slot machines and other types of gambling is ____

A. Fixed ratio
B. Variable ratio
C. Fixed interval
D. Variable interval

11. All of the following are true about behaviorism, except

A. The first few years are decisive in personality development
B. People are born neither good nor bad
C. Learning takes the lion’s share for our behaviors
D. Human beings are infinitely changeable

12. What does the deduction of salary of an employee who was showing misconduct in an organization represent?

A. Negative punishment
B. Negative reinforcement
C. Positive punishment
D. Positive reinforcement

13. Being in an overcrowded room with lots of people talking, Mr ‘x’ is attempting to ignore the flooding of information and focused on only what is important for him. This process is known as ____ 

A. Sensory deprivation
B. Sensory overload
C. Selective attention
D. Sensory adaptation

14. Suppose a one-year old child is playing with a toy near an electrical out-let. He sticks part of the toy into the outlet. He gets shocked, becomes frightened, and begins to cry. For several days after that experience, he shows fear when his mother gives him the toy and he refuse to play with it. In classical conditioning the toy represents 

A. Conditioning stimulus
B. Unconditioned stimulus
C. Unconditioned response
D. Conditioning response

I5. You are shown a picture of Your grandfather’s face, but the eyes and moth are obstructed. You still recognize it as a picture of Your grandfather. Which type of principle best explains this example of perception?

A. Figure-ground principle
B. Closure
C. Good continuation
D. Proximity

Part III: Completion items

1. Our visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions and judging the distance of an object is said to be ____

2. A branch of psychology that studies about the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments is called ____

3. ____ argues that psychology should focus on how the mind allows people to adapt to the real world

Part IV: Supply items

1. lkrarm is conducting her senior essay entitled “examining the relationship between parenting style and aggressive behavior among first year students in Harar campus”. from this scenario identify

A. The research method Ikram should employ ____

B. The independent variable ____

C. The dependent variable ____

2. Kalikidan is walking along a busy street listening to her favorite song on her MP3 player. She accidentally steps on to the road and is narrowly missed by a bus driving past. Kalkidan is very upset, and for several days afterwards her hands shake, and she finds herself bursting into tears. A week later, after these symptoms have subsided, Kalkidan is listening to the radio while lying in bed. She hears her favorite song again and her hands start shaking and she starts crying. In this scenario, what is the

A. Conditioned stimulus ____

B. Conditioned response ____

C. Unconditioned stimulus ____  D. Unconditioned response ____

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