Inclusiveness Final Exam – Haramaya University

Part I. Write “True” if the Statement is Correct and “False” if the Statement Is Incorrect

1. When designing an intervention program for persons with disabilities, the nature of their disability should be considered

2. Except the negative attitude of others towards PWDs, the way PWDs perceive and define themselves in relation to their disability do not have an impact on their lives

3. Psychological control is concerned with whether or not a person believes that he or she can accomplish the desired outcome

4. Most of the exclusion experienced by PWDs from public services is due to restricted environments, not due to impairments

5. Disability is considered as a cause and consequence of poverty

6. Countries should focus on the tertiary level prevention related strategies if they want to protect and improve the health and well-being of their society

7. Social protection schemes like disability compensation and incentive programs encourage PWDs to involve in open labour market

8. The presence of human right instruments and laws alone can ensure the full inclusion of PWDs in education, employment and other public services

9. An inclusive culture involves the full and successful integration of diverse people

10. The rate of employment of PWDs is lower when compared with persons without disabilitie

Part II. Match the international instruments Under Column “A” With Their Explanations from Column “B”

Column A

11. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1 948)

12. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

13. The Jomtien World Declaration on Education for All (1990)

14. The Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (1993)

15. The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education 1994)

16. The World Education Forum and Framework for Action (Dakar 2000)

Column B

A. It emphasizes that the states should take the responsibility for the education of persons with disabilities and should have “a clear policy, flexible curriculum and provide quality materials and ongoing teacher training and support”

B. Article 26 of the declaration defines education as one of the basic human rights and establishes the principle of free basic compulsory education for citizens

C. It advocates the right of all children to attend school in their home community and in inclusive classes

D. Article 28 and 29 encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education

E. It adopted the ‘Education for All’ initiatives declared in the Jomtien

F. The declaration recognized and re-stated that: “education is a basic right for all people.”

Part III. Choose the Correct Answer for the Following Questions among the Alternatives Given

17. Identify the factor that has implication for success in life of a person with disability?

A. The level of support available in their home
B. The economic status of the individual and caregivers
C. The individual’s educational level
D. The availability of friendship and social networks
E. All of the above

18. The political system of a given country creates a handicapping condition for PWDs and other vulnerable groups through:

A. Designing inclusive public policies
B. Recognizing the equal rights of PWDs and vulnerable groups
C. Implementing inclusive public policies
D. Enacting inappropriate laws
E. None of the above

19. Which one of the following statement is wrong about Self-efficacy belief?

A. It is concerned with whether or not a person believes s/he can accomplish the desired outcome
B. A person with high self-efficacy may overcome the effect of disability than a person with low self-efficacy
C. The highly self-efficacious individual would work slower at tasksD. The development of self-efficacy is much affected by environmental factors
E. None of the above

20. Persons with disability with high self-efficacy have:

A. The ability to remain positive under difficult circumstances
B. Able to exert effort toward reducing the impact of difficult circumstances
C. Focuses on their functional limitations resulted from impairments
D. Accurately evaluate their performance and abilities
B. All except ‘C’

21. Which of the following can be the source of support for PWDs in the immediate environment?

A. National or regional governments
B. Family members of PWDs
C. Local institutions and social groups
D. Zonal administrations
E. All except ‘B’

22. Which one is not the outcome of implementing disability inclusion strategies?

A. Ensuring equal rights of PWDs
B. Reducing exclusion
C. Reducing independence
D. Increase participation
E. All of the above

23. Disability inclusion strategies

A. are comprehensive
B. include differentiated service provisions
C. are designed based on the needs of service provides
D. are flexible and multidimensional
E. All of the above

24. Excluding PWDs and vulnerability decreases ____

A. Inequality
B. Discrimination
C. Participation
D. Marginalization
E. AII except ‘C’

25. Identification of a health and disabling condition early and reducing or preventing its long-term effects is a:

A. Primary prevention
B. Secondary prevention
C. Tertiary prevention
D. Rehabilitation
E. A twin-track approach

26. Which one is the characteristic of a community with an inclusive culture?

A. Choices of PWDs is determined by the community
B. Minority groups are required to melt in the dominant culture
C. The population looks homogeneous
D. Differences between individuals is respected
E. None of the above

27. One of the following is not an enabling role of families of children with disabilities

A. Overprotecting their child
B. Providing appropriate and timely information
C. Giving love and support to their child
D. Fulfilling assistive technologies and devices
E. None of the above

28. Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is characterized by:

A. Promoting collaboration among community leaders, PWDs and their families
B. Promoting provision of support to PWDs in institutions or centers
C. Considers PWDs are passive recipient of services from their community
D. Ignoring participation of family members of PWDs in CBR
E. All of the above

29. Which strategy does not coincide with practice of disability inclusion?

A. Including PWDs in everyday community roles and activities
B. Removing institutional and policy barriers
C. Making PWDs adapt themselves to the work or school environment
D. Providing multiple and flexible public services to PWDs  
E. AII of the above

30. What are the consequences of discrimination and exclusion on PWDs and vulnerabilities from social and community development processes?

A. Increased inequality
B. Violation of human rights
C. Reduced participation in public life
D. Increased illiteracy
E. AII of the above

31. In South Africa, the public sector departments and state bodies are required at least 2% of their workforce must consist of PWDs. This kind strategy of improving the employment for PWDs is known as

A. Wage Subsidies
B. Quota system
C. Supported employment
D. Worker’s compensation system
E. None of the above

32. An inclusive community

A. Lacks motivation to eliminate all forms of discrimination

B. Devalues diversity
C. Responds slowly to racist and other discriminating incidents
D. Engages all its citizens in decision-making processes that affect their lives
E. None of the above

33. Which one of the following is Incorrect about Inclusive policy and legal frameworks in Ethiopia?

A. Laws or policies regarding PWDs emerged since 1991
B. Ethiopia has signed most of the international human right conventions and declarations
C. Ethiopia has not developed a national disability policy yet
D. Ethiopia has developed a number of disability related instruments even before 1971
E. None of the above

34. Which one of the following is not amongst the seven pillars of inclusion?

A. Access
B. Employment
C. Opportunity
D. Choice
E. All except ‘B’

35. An inclusive culture

A. Encompasses formal and informal policies and practices involve several core values
B. Involves the presence of people with disabilities within the community and given institution
C. Involves provision of equitable access to all resources, opportunities, and decision-making processes
D. Respects differences between individuals
E. All of the above

36. Of the following, identify The mechanism that doesn’t serve for ensuring the inclusion of people with disabilities in recruitment practices

A. Affirmative action
B. Accessible outreach and hiring practices
C. Announcing job vacancies only in texts with normal font sizes
D. Targeted recruitment
E. None of the above

Part IV. Answer the Following Questions

37. Explain the twin track approach to disability inclusion

38. Write any two among the factors determine the impact a disability has on those with disabilities

39. Write any two among the elements of an inclusive culture

40. Mention any two among disability inclusion related instruments Ethiopia developed nationally

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