PART ONE: MODAL VERBS
DIRECTION: Below is an incomplete dialogue. Complete the dialog with suitable modals given in the table below, and write only the letters of your choices
C. ought to
D. had better
F. have to
Habiba: My Friend Gelmo never seems to have time for me these days. I just can’t count him anymore.
Mahlet: Well, he started a new job. right? He (1) ____ be really busy.
Habiba: Yeah, I’m sure he is. But he used to drop by or call me all the time.
Mahlet: He might be feeling stressed out from the job. Or he (2) ____ be upset with you about something.
Habiba: No, that can’t be the problem. I haven’t done anything wrong Anyway, (3) I ____ call him
Mahlet: Yeah, I think you (4) ________. If not, you will not meet each other ever.
Habiba: OK… [calling…] Well, there’s no answer.
Mahlet: He (5) ____ still be sleeping. It’s only 6:30!
PART TWO: READING
I. Reading Passage I
Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.
1Did you know that some people don’t do their reading assignments? It’s shocking, but it’s true. Many students don’t even read short texts that they are assigned in class. There are many reasons for this. They may be distracted or bored. They may be unwilling to focus. They may be underconfident readers. Whatever the reason, it has to stop today. Here’s why.
2Reading stimulates your minds. It is like a workout for your brain. When people get old, their muscles begin to deteriorate. They get weaker and their strength leaves them. Exercise can prevent this loss. The same thing happens to people’s brains when they get older. Brain power and speed decline with age. Reading strengthens your brain and prevents these declines.
3You can benefit from reading in the near-term too. Reading provides knowledge. Knowledge is power. Therefore, reading can make you a more powerful person. You can learn to do new things by reading. Do you want to make video games? Do you want to design clothing? Reading can teach you all this and more. But you have to get good at reading, and the only way to get good at something is to practice.
4Read everything that you can at school, regardless of whether you find it interesting. Reading expands your vocabulary. Even a “boring” text can teach you new words. Having a larger vocabulary will help you better express yourself. You will be able to speak, write, and think more intelligently. What’s boring about that?
5Do not just discount a text because it is unfamiliar to you. Each time you read, you are exposed to new ideas and perspectives. Reading can change the way that you understand the world. It can give you a broader perspective on things. It can make you worldlier. You can learn how people live in faraway places. You can learn about cultures different from your own.
6Reading is good for your state of mind. It has a calming effect. It can lower your stress levels and help you relax. You can escape from your troubles for a moment when you read, and it’s a positive escape. The benefits of reading far outweigh those of acting like a doofus. So do yourself a favor: the next time you get a reading assignment, take as much as you can from it. Squeeze it for every drop of knowledge that it contains. Then move on to the next one.
Directions: Based on your reading of the passage above, write the letter that contains the correct answer for each question below.
6. Which best expresses the main idea of the second paragraph?
A. Reading is exciting.
B. Reading strengthens your mind.
C. Age affects the body in many ways.
D. Working out keeps your body in shape.
7. Why does the author think that you should read books that are boring?
A. You will eventually grow to love them if you read them enough.
B. You will get better grades in reading class.
C. You will make your teacher very happy.
D. You will learn new words.
8. Which best expresses the main idea of the third paragraph?
A. Reading can benefit you.
B. You can learn to program video games or design clothing by reading.
C. You can learn amazing things and become a better person by reading.
D. Knowledge is power.
9. Which best expresses the author’s main purpose in writing this text?
A. The author is trying to persuade students to do their reading work.
B. He is teaching people how to become better readers.
C. He is explaining why people don’t do their reading work.
D. He is entertaining readers with facts about the mind and body.
10. Which of the following is not one of the author’s main points?
A. Reading broadens your perspective and makes you a better person.
B. Reading is a relaxing activity with positive mental side effects.
C. Reading helps you perform on tests and get into selective schools.
D. Reading keeps your mind in shape and prevents losses due to age.
11. Which is not one of the author’s arguments in the fifth paragraph?
A. Reading gives you a broader perspective on the world.
B. Reading changes the way that you understand the world.
C. Reading helps prepare you for your job in the real world.
D. Reading teaches you about distant lands and cultures.
12. Why does the author believe that reading is good for your mind state?
A. It has a calming effect.
B. It can lower your stress levels.
C. It can help you relax.
D. All of these.
13. Which title best expresses the main idea of this text?
A. Reading: Good for the Mind in Many Ways
B. Reading: The Key to a Successful Academic Future
C. Reading: Improve Your Vocabulary While Being Entertained
D. Reading: The Best Way to Improve Your Writing Skills
II. Identifying Main Ideas
Directions: Given below are short texts. Identify the statement that best explains the main idea of each text and write the letter of your choice.
14. According to the United States Centers of Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, everybody who is at least six months old should get a flu shot this year. This recommendation was first made last year. The AARP Bulletin reports that a vaccine called Flu zone High-Dose is now available, designed especially for people aged 65 years and older. Because older people produce less robust immune responses than younger people do, scientists have produced this vaccine to give them better protection against the influenza virus. This is important because cases of the flu can involve very serious complications for older persons.
A. Everyone over six months old should get a flu shot this year.
B. There is now a special high-dose flu shot just for older people.
C. People over 65 years of age are more likely to contract the flu.
D. Due to complications, no flu shot can protect an older person.
15. As of the year 2011, heart disease was the number one killer of Americans. It was projected that more than 40 percent of adults in the United States would be diagnosed with cardiovascular disease by the year 2030. This proportion translates to more than a trillion dollars in medical costs. In addition, Medicare would be responsible for covering more than half of those expenses. Therefore, advocates such as AARP say one way that aging Americans can help to reduce our federal government’s budget deficit is to exercise. Regular aerobic exercise strengthens the heart muscle, improves blood circulation, and helps us lose weight. These results can lower our nation’s medical expenditures by reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease.
A. Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of Americans.
B. In 2011, heart disease was expected to have declined by 2030.
C. Medicare would have to cover less than half our medical costs.
D. Exercise can reduce the budget deficit by cutting medical costs.
16. Many of us have become aware that statistically, the majority of Americans are overweight. Although we hear this often in the media, not everybody may realize the implications of this fact for health care and ultimately for our national economy. Not only is excess weight associated with heart disease, a number of different cancers, and other problems; it especially is associated with diabetes. In 2011, 28.5 million of American citizens had diabetes. An additional 66 million Americans had pre-diabetic symptoms. In 2011, medical costs for diabetics were $174 billion per year. Research from a health insurance company projected that by 2020, diabetes would cost America $3.4 trillion per year. The federal government would pay over 60% of that total. Accordingly, some organizations have recommended that losing weight by reducing our intake of high-calorie foods could help save the government money by lowering the risk and hence the incidence, of diabetes. As a result, improving our physical health also can improve our fiscal health.
A. More than 28 million Americans had diabetes in 2011.
B. Losing weight reduces diabetes risk, thereby saving government expense.
C. The federal deficit must be reduced to allow for medical expense.
D. Diabetes has become an American epidemic unrelated to weight.
III. Reading Passage II
Direction: Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.
1Nowadays, even your toaster can be programmed to work in response to a voice command, so it should be no surprise that cars have been assigned the task of driving for us. It seems futuristic, but it now seems certain that cars and trucks will become fully automated. Is this a good thing?
2Self-driving cars – also known as driverless or autonomous cars – can scan their immediate surroundings and navigate without any human intervention. The obvious benefit to this technology is convenience, but even if travel becomes less costly and time-consuming, a number of unresolved problems such as safety and liability make this innovation largely undesirable. There are no legal frameworks or government regulations for autonomous vehicles, and driverless cars can open up a world of catastrophic possibilities for cybercriminals such as hackers or terrorists.
3There are clear advantages to automated features such as speed control or emergency braking, but those are fundamentally distinct from the technology of full automation. Driver-assisted technology is a beneficial goal for automotive engineers, but it is time to draw a line and insist that humans – not computers – should drive vehicles.
i. Comprehension questions
Directions: Now, answer the following questions based on the information in the passage. Write your answers in the space provided on the answer sheet.
17. The author’s main argument can best be summarized as:
A. People have become too lazy if they cannot even drive their own cars.
B. There are no laws that govern automated vehicles.
C. The risks associated with self-driving cars far outweigh their benefits.
D. Although convenient, self-driving cars would lead to an increase in terrorism.
18. What function does the first sentence of paragraph 3 have?
A. It admits that some technological advances in the automotive industry are desirable.
B. It admits that some technological advances in the automotive industry are not desirable.
C. It emphasizes the idea that the apparent advancements made in automation are wholly undesirable.
D. It warns against the arrogant assumption that human made computers could provide perfect safety.
19. Which best describes the purpose of paragraph 2?
A. To demonstrate that convenience will be a key feature that makes this technology successful.
B. To establish the pros and cons of the issue and reveal the author’s position.
C. To provide detailed evidence in support of the author’s claim.
D. To challenge common assumptions about artificial intelligence.
20. In paragraph 3, what is the difference between “automated features” and “full automation”?
A. Automated features allow the author to take a nap while in transit.
B. Automated features offer assistance to a human driver, but full automation requires no driver.
C. Automated features are dangerous while full automation is relatively safe.
D. Automated features rely less on human decisions than full automation.
Directions: The following words have been taken from the above passage. Decide what they mean as used in passage.
A. Of the leg
C. Of the law
iii. Reference questions
Directions: Decide what the following expressions used in the above text refer to. Write your answers on the spaces provided in the answer sheet.
24. this innovation (paragraph 2, line 4) refers to ____
25. those (paragraph 3, line 2) refers to ____
PART THREE: FUTURE TENSES
Directions: Use ‘will’ or ‘be going to’ where appropriate to complete the dialog below.
Planning a party
Martha: What a horrible weather today. I’d love to go out, but I think it (26) ____ continue raining.
Kidist: Oh, I don’t know. Maybe the sun will come out later this afternoon.
Martha: I hope you’re right. Listen, I (27) ____ have a party this Saturday. Would you like to come?
Kidist: Oh, I’d love to come. Thank you for inviting me; Who is going to come to the party?
Martha: Well, some people haven’t told me yet. But Peter and Mark are going to help out with the cooking.
Kidist: Hey, (28) I ____ help, too!
Martha: Would you? That would be great!
Kidist: I’m going to make lasagne!
Martha: That sounds delicious! I know my Italian cousins (29) ____ be there. I’m Sure they will love it.
Kidist: Italians? Maybe I will bake a cake…
Martha: No, no. They’re not like that. They will love it.
Kidist: Well, if you say so… is there going to be a theme for the party?
Martha: No, I don’t think so. Just a chance to get together and have fun.
Kidist: I’m sure it will be lots of fun.
Martha: But I’m going to hire a clown!
Kidist: A clown! You’re kidding me.
Martha: No, no. As a child, I always wanted a clown. Now, I (30) ___ have my clown at my own party.
Kidist: I’m sure everyone (31) ____ have a good laugh.
Martha: That’s the plan!
PART FOUR: ACTIVE & PASSIVE CONSTRUCTION
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks with the correct tense and passive or active form of the verb in parentheses.
Effects of Passive Smoking
According to a study carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO), passive smoking kills over 600,000 people a year, a quarter of whom are children. The report says that there are 1.2 billion smokers worldwide. They are not only risking their own lives but the lives of non-smokers as well. Both active and passive smoking kill almost 6 million people a year. In the year the study (32) ____ (take place) passive smoking led to almost four hundred thousand deaths from heart diseases, 150,000 from respiratory infections and thousands from asthma and lung cancer. Children are the group that is hardest hit by passive smoking. But while in Europe, only 71 died because of second-hand smoke, over 40,000 (33) ____ (Kill) in Africa. A few months ago, a report released in the US (34) ____ (show) that more than half of American children between the ages of 3 and 11 (35) ____ (have) particles in their blood that came from passive smoking. Most adults who smoke do so at home and in front of their children. Children whose parents smoke also have a higher risk of infections and other diseases like pneumonia and bronchitis. About a third of all adults and 40% of all children worldwide (36) ___ (expose) to passive smoking on a regular basis. Experts say that banning smoking in public places can help cut health care costs and lower the number of people who die through passive smoking. Studies show that strict anti-smoking laws in bars and restaurants can massively lower the number of people who smoke. Such laws can also help people quit smoking. The report comes to the conclusion that more needs to (37) ____ (do) to protect non-smokers at their place of work and on public transport. Right now, only 7% of the world’s population lives in areas with strict anti-smoking laws.
PART FIVE: RELATIVE PRONOUNS
DIRECTIONS: Write appropriate relative pronouns in the blanks to complete the following paragraphs. Use the relative pronouns below.
A VERY LONG LIFE
Timothy the tortoise was about 160 years old (38) ____ he died at his home near Exeter in November 2005. Timothy, (39) ____ early life was spent at sea, was thought to be the oldest resident in Britain at the time. He was found by a British naval officer, Captain John Courtenay Everard, on a Portuguese ship in 1854. Everard, (40) ____ was a relative of the Earl of Devon, adopted him and he became the mascot on a succession of British ships for nearly forty years. In 1892 he went to live at Powder ham Castle, (41) ____ is the historic home of the Earls of Devon, and in 1935 he was given a permanent home in the castle’s rose garden. Throughout his long life, Timothy showed a keen instinct for survival. During the second world war, for example, he felt the vibrations from the bombs (42) ____ the Germans were dropping on Exeter and made his own air-raid shelter under some steps. He was also very healthy, never needing to see a vet until the last year of his life. At the time of his death, Timothy was owned by Lady Gabrielle Courtenay, (43) ____ is the aunt of the current Earl of Devon. Lady Devon also lives at Powder ham, (44) ____ Timothy was given a family funeral and was buried in the grounds of the castle.
PART SIX: WRITING PARAGRAPH
Directions: Use the given details and write a well-developed and coherent paragraph of 120 words on ‘Benefits of Regular Exercise’. The introductory and the topic sentences have been done for you.
Benefits of Regular Exercise
1. Controlling your weight
2. Reducing risks for serious illness
3. Improving physical strength
The importance of exercise lies in the fact that it’s the best thing which can keep us away from doctors for a very long time. Regular physical exercise is acknowledged for its priceless returns. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________