Anthropology Final Exam – Haramaya University

PART I: Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if the statement is not correct

1. Child girls are exposed to double marginalization and discrimination because of their age and gender

2. Internal aspects of ethnic identity are interconnected with the external behavior

3. Elders in most of Ethiopian customary governance system have merely the power to hear issues

4. Gamo’s have centralized political system like the Wolayta and Dawro peoples

5. The marginalized social groups are available in all society & culture

6. In its modern sense, it was only after the end of World War I that the term ethnicity widely adopted and begins to use

7. Ethnicity is something that is being negotiated and constructed in everyday living for primodalist approach

8. Indigenous institutions of dispute resolution and peace-making are not very effective to resolve dispute and restore peace between different ethnic groups

9. Cosmology deals about the supernatural forces formed human beings and the planet we live on

10. Gender equity involves discrimination on a group of people based on their gender and mainly arises from socio-cultural norms

PART II: Choose the best answer from the given alternatives

1. Craft workers are segregated at market places and they sell their goods at the outskirts of markets. This indicates ____ ? 

A. Economic marginalization
B. Spatial marginalization
C. Cultural marginalization
D. Social marginalization

2. Which one of the following is not true about bio-cultural animal?

A. Human relying on instinct rather than such cultural information
B. The dual nature of human being
C. Cultural artifacts allow human bodies to survive in environments they wouldn’t normally survive in
D. Humans survive by using both their biology and cultural information

3. Which one of the following is not an indicator to the external aspect of ethnic identity?

A. Participation in ethnic institutional organizations
B. Participation in ethnic personal networks
C. Having a certain ideas, attitudes and feelings for a given ethnicity
D. Speaking an ethnic language and practicing ethnic traditions

4. ____ refers to a body of rules, norms, and a set of moral values that serve as a wider framework for human conduct and social interactions

A. Customary courts
B. Customary law
C. Council of elders
D. Public assemblies

5. ____ is a process that increases the likelihood of survival for an organism

A. Natural selection
B. Survival fittest
C. Adaptation
D. Evolution

6. Which one of the following is odd about major institutions of Gamo people?

A. Roga
B. Guta
C. Dere dubusha
D. Dere cima

7. Which one pf the following customary governance system have decentralized power structure?

A. Gadaa
C. Jaarsa Biyyaa
B. Baalle
D. Dere Woga

8. ____ is the state of species’ offspring being to some extent dissimilar with its’ siblings and parents

A. Replication
B. Selection
C. Variation
D. Survival of the fittest

9. Which cultural area is characterized by mobility of people and herds?

A. Enset Culture
B. Pastoralist Culture
C. Plough Culture
D. Mixed Culture

10. ____ is a situation in which individua/groups are exposed to possibilities of harm, attack, and mistreatment

A. Marginalization
B. Minority
C. Vulnerability
D. Discrimination

11. Which one of the following is the general assembly and the highest body of Gedeo’s indigenous system of governance?

A. Luuba
B. Roga
C. Ya’a
D. Baalle

12. Which one of the following is hardly true about the Gadaa system?

A. Gadaa is an egalitarian system of governance
B. An age grading institution of the Oromo
C. Highly celebrated institution of governance and dispute settlement among the Oromo people
D. The role of religion is low in the Gadaa systems of governance

13. Women’s peace-making institutions includes all except, ____

A. Don kachel
B. Deberte
C. Abbogereb
D. Yakaa

14. Except one, all of the following statements are true

A. The manifestation of gender inequality varies from culture to culture
B. Marginalization entails inclusion of girls and women in a wide range of opportunities and social services
C. Muslim Rohingyas are among the most marginalized and persecuted people
D. Ageism is a widely observed social problem in the world

15. According to anthropologists, which one of the following is false about ethnicity?

A. Ethnicity is centrally a matter of shared meanings
B. Ethnicity is a matter of cultural differentiation
C. Ethnicity is externalized in personal self-identification
D. Ethnicity is internalized in the person’s psychological affairs

16. An ethnic group should predominantly consist the following features except, ____

A. Shared historical memories
B. A sense of solidarity
C. A common proper name
D. Having a consanguineal kinship network is must

17. Which one of the following statements is correct about primodalist Approach about ethnicity?

A. Ethnicity is ascribed status and membership is fixed
B. Ethnicity is situationally defined depending on the rational calculations of advantage
C. Ethnicity is something that is being negotiated and constructed in everyday life
D. Ethnicity is based on people’s historical and symbolic memory

18. Gender-based marginalization could be best explained in ____

A. It is arising from socio-cultural norms
B. It involves an inclusion of girls and women in wide range of opportunities
C. It includes customary practices that work for the health and safety of women
D. It is a marginalization of people who engage in craftworks

19. Which one of the following is the cultural characteristic of humanity?

A. Using two legs for movement
B. Having large brain
C. Using language to communicate with others
D. Relatively small teeth for primates of human size

20. Cosmological view of human origin considered as ____ ?

A. Human being is evolved from non-human primates
B. A belief that ritually transmitted from generation to generation
C. Humanity is the result of day-to-day evolution
D. Human beings evolved from supernatural power

PART III: Match the concepts under column “A” with their most appropriate items in column “B”

Column A

1. Customary law of Gedeo people

2. Inter-ethnic conflict resolution institution

2. Council of elders of Gamo people

4. Let us all live-in peace together

5. Law making assembly of the Borena Oromo

Column B

A. Jaarsa Biyyaa

B. Dere Cima

C. Don Kachel

D. Dere Woga

E. Seera

F. Dere Dubusha

G. Abbo Gereb

H. Gumi gaayo

Part IV: Fill the blank space in appropriate terms

1. ____ is a social recognition of biological difference of human being

2. ____ is the term that can be used to refer modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) as well as some of our most recent ancestors

3. ____ is considered as a small group of people within a community, region, or country

4. ____ refer to a cluster of related cultures occupying a certain geographical region

5. ____ states that ethnicity as a rational calculation of advantage and stimulated by political mobilization

Part V: Write a brief essay on the following questions

1. Briefly discuss variations and similarities among indigenous institutions of conflict resolution in Ethiopia

2. Briefly discuss the Cosmological and Paleo-anthropological perspectives on human origins

3. Briefly discuss about independent facts of evolution

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