Anthropology Final Exam – Addis Ababa University

Part I. True/False Questions

Instructions: Read the following statements carefully and write TRUE if the statement is correct or FALSE if it Is incorrect.

_____1. Intra-ethnic conflict resolution institutions have equal potentials in resolving intra-ethnic and inter-ethnic conflicts.
_____2. Marginalization is the state of being exposed to physical injuries and emotional/psychological harms.
_____3. Early/child marriage denotes both gender-based and age-based marginalization and harms.
_____4. Cultural beliefs and norms support the continuation of harmful practices such as female genital cutting.
_____5. An extreme form of ethnocentrism could hinder communication and lead to misunderstanding between different cultural groups.

Part II: Matching Questions

Instructions: Read the following explanations under Column ‘A’ carefully and match them with concepts under Column ‘B’ and write the letter of your choice in Capital Letter on the space provided.

Column A

6. ___Norms that are not strictly enforced
7. ___The process by which cultural elements are borrowed from another society and incorporated into the culture of the recipient society
8. ___Norms that are essential to core values of a culture
9. ___Standards by which members of a society define what is good or bad
10. __The exchange of cultural features as a result of continuous direct cultural contact

Column B
A. Value
B. Invention
C. Diffusion
D. Enculturation
C. Relativism
D. Cultural universality
G. Folkways
H. Mores
I. Acculturation

Part III: Multiple Choices

Instructions: Read the following questions carefully, choose the best answer, and write the letter of your choice in capital letter on the spaces provided.

11. Which one of the following is incorrect about anthropology?
A. It is the study of human societies and cultures across space and time.
B. It is the science of humanity and all its cultural manifestations.
C. It examines learned and shared strategies for living by social groups.
D. It examines characteristics shared by humans as members of Homo sapiens.
E. It mainly analyzes those material culture products of social groups.
12. Which of the following is characteristic of anthropology?
A. It is concerned with both human biology and culture.
B. It is concerned with human variation, evolution, and adaptation.
C It focuses solely on prehistoric human societies.
D. It is concerned with past, present, and future developments.
E. It mostly focuses on socio-cultural issues in industrial societies

13. Which of the following is FALSE about culture?
A. Cultures change as a result of diffusion, acculturation. and invention.
B. Individuals reshape their culture by creating new technologies.
C. Human beings learn culture in the process of social interactions.
D. Humans inherit Culture biologically from their parents.
E. Culture changes as a result of internal and extern factors.
14. Which of the following is a branch of anthropology that studies contemporary cultures and societies?
A. Cultural evolution
B. Archaeological anthropology
C. Physical anthropology   
D. Social anthropology
E. Applied anthropology

15. Which of the following is the contribution of anthropology?
A. Judging the culture of a society based on the values of our culture.
B. Supporting culturally sensitive development projects and activities.
C. Protecting local cultures from the expanding western technology and values.
D. Appreciating cultural practices regardless of their impacts on certain social groups.
E. Informing people to avoid cultural contacts to preserve their culture for generations to come.

16. Which of the following is the study area of archaeology?
A. Past peoples’ ways of lives.
B. Cultural features of contemporary human beings.
C. Material culture of contemporary humans.
D. Specific ethnic group’s culture.
D. Written archival materials of humans.

17. Which of the following is not true about linguistic anthropology?
A. It is the study of languages of past peoples.
B. It is the study of humans’ unwritten languages as a resource.
C. It is the study of speaking languages as cultural practice.
D. It is the study of language in its socio-cultural context across space.
E. It is the study of language in its socio-cultural context across time.

18. An anthropologist discovered a town that had been buried underground thousands of years ago. This could be an example of 
A. a feature
B. an artefact
C. an eco-fact  
D. an excavated site
E. an active town

19. Which of the following is true about socio-cultural anthropology?
A. It is the analysis of past societies’ cultures.
B. It is the study of excavated material cultures.
C. It is the study of culture examining artefacts and eco-facts.
D. It is the study of non-material cultures of future societies.
E. It is the study of contemporary societies and cultures. 

20. When an anthropologist lives with a certain cultural group for a year or more and writes about the culture of that group, this anthropologist is
A. an ethnologist.
B. an ethno-linguist.
C. an ethnographer.   
D. a socio-linguist.
E. an archaeologist. 

21. Which statement Is correct about anthropology?
A. Anthropology has no role in the success of development projects.
B. Anthropology is the comparative study of culture and society, with a focus on local life.
C. Anthropology’s main focus is on a macro level to understand humanity.
D. Indigenous anthropology was practiced when anthropology started as field of study in the 19th century. 
E. Anthropologists first conduct ethnology to get ethnographic data of a given culture.
22. Which one of the following statements does not describe anthropology?
A. Anthropology is a comparative science.
B. Anthropology is an inter-disciplinary field of study.
C. Anthropology is a judgmental science and holds position.
D. Anthropology follows an emic perspective.
E. Anthropology is holistic.

23. Which of the following supports the idea that culture is symbolic?
A. Symbols and culture have very limited relationship in human societies
B. Culture exists without symbols if it has rich material wealth and technology.
C. Symbols and what they represent have inborn relationships with each other.
D. Symbols convey meanings that are understandable in its cultural context.
E. The meanings of symbols remain the same across time regardless of culture change. 

24. Which of the following is true about archaeology?
A. It studies human fossils to know human evolution.
B. It mainly relies on participant observation.
C. It studies material cultures used by past people to reconstruct past culture.
D. It investigates genes of people who live in the past to know their culture.
E. ‘B’ and ‘C’. D

25. Anthropologists do not support harmful traditional practices in the name of cultural relativism. Which of the following is the major reason for this position of anthropologists?
A. Harmful practices preserve social norms.
B. Harmful practices improve the lifestyle of people
C. Harmful practices protect the rights of people.
D. Harmful practices violate the rights of people.
E. Harmful practices maintain collective wellbeing.

26. Which of the following is true about the proponents of the theories of ethnicity?
A. For instrumentalists, ethnicity is fixed at birth.
B. For constructivists, ethnicity is created & manipulated by elites for political gains.
C. For the primordialists, ethnicity is natural and unchangeable.
D. For the primordialists, one can have many ethnic identities.
E. For instrumentalists, one’s ethnicity is determined by ancestry.

27. Which of the following is related to factors that drive child marriage?
A. The value attached to chastity
B. Government’s need to educate all its citizens.
C. Political calculation for accessing and gaining resources.
D. Awareness of females that they should marry at the age of 18 or above.
E. Parents’ encouragement of their female children to continue their schooling.

28. Which of the following practices contradicts with human rights?
A. Providing equal job opportunities for both Men and women.
B. Marriage arrangement with some occupational groups.   
C. Using tools made by craft workers like tanners, potters and weavers.
D. Practicing early or child marriage in all societies.
E. Discouraging female genital mutilation or cutting.

29. Which of the following is not included in the definition of an ethnic group?
A. Sense of solidarity 
B. Shared historical memory
C. Common culture
D. Common ancestry
E. Sense of differentiation 

30. Which of the following statement matches the idea that craft workers lead a life of paradoxes?
A. Craftwork is a skill which is naturally impure.
B. Craft workers prefer to live at the outskirts of a village.
C. Craft workers are marginalized; yet their products are used by others.
D. Craft workers are so much appreciated in the society for what they produce.
E. Craft workers do not want to intermarry with other groups.

31. Which of the following could be defined as treatment of a person or a social group minor, insignificant, and peripheral?  
A. Vulnerability
B. Social status 
C. Minority groups
D. Marginalization
E. Gender inequality

32. Which one of the following is not a factor for the marginalization of a social group in Ethiopia?
A. Age
B. Gender
C. Ethnic identity
D. Occupation
E. None of the above

33. Which of the following statements correctly explains the feature of customary conflict resolution institutions?
A. They encourage revenge rather than community cohesion
B. Bilingual eiders are needed in the process of intra-ethnic conflict resolution
C. They have limited-role in-resolving conflicts among members in one ethnic group
D. They involve public participation of victims, offenders, and community members
E. They are equally open for both men and women in the process of conflict resolution 

34. Which of the following council of elders and ethnic group combination is wrongly associated?
A. Yehager Shimagile – Amhara
B. Baliqenet – Siltie
C. Dere Cima – Gedeo
D. Guurtii – Ethiopian Somali
E. Cimuma – Burji

35. Which of the following statement is correct? 
A. Gender-based marginalization is a global problem and its manifestations are uniform across cultures. B. Considering craft workers as impure or polluting is an example of economic marginalization of these groups.
C. With the awareness created to the societies of Ethiopia, gender-based marginalization is no more a problem in the country.
D. Marriage arrangement with a female below the age of 18 years is seen as violation of human right even when her consent is obtained.
E. Older people were considered as a burden in the past but now they are seen as custodians of the culture.

36. Which of the following lists embrace the three major components of customary justice institutions in Ethiopia?
A. Customary laws, council of elders, and customary courts
B. Customary laws, females groups, and formal laws
C. Council of elders, ethnic leaders, and formal laws
D. Assemblies, written customary laws, and elderly women
E. Religious laws, religious leaders, and customary courts 

37. Which of the following is an example of economic marginalization of occupational minority groups in Ethiopia?
A. Craft-workers live at the outskirt of a village
B. Craft-workers-walk on the lower side of the road
C. Craft-workers use a separate burial place
D. Craft-workers are not allowed to own farmland
E. Craft-workers exercise in-group marriage

38. Mr ‘X’ is engaged in producing metal articles like knives, sickles, and axes. He asked the daughter of ‘Y’, who is a well to do family, for marriage. Mr ‘Y’ was very angry and considered the request as an insult when a marriage request was presented to him from a person like ‘X’. He stopped communicating with Mr ‘X’ and his family members. This scenario is specifically an example of
A. economic marginalization of craft workers
B. spatial marginalization of craft workers
C. social marginalization of craft workers
D. age-based marginalization
E. gender-based marginalization

39. Which of the following practice is common in Ethiopia and needs to be encouraged?
A. Legal pluralism
B. Child marriage
C. Despising craft workers
D. Practicing the culture of revenge
E. Marrying off females very early for the sake of chastity

Part IV: Fill in the Blank Spaces

Instructions: Read the following items carefully and fill the blank spaces with correct terms/concepts

40. ________ refer to stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination against people based on their age.
41. ________ is a theory of ethnicity that argues individual agents could construct their ethnic group and identity drawing on subjective features.
42. ________ is the customary law in Gedeo Customary System of Governance.
43. ________ refers to a body of rules, norms, and set of moral values that serve as a wider framework for human’s conduct and social interactions.
44. ________ is a branch of anthropology that studies culture of past societies through the analysis of material culture.