Logic Final Exam – University Of Gondar

Part I: True/False Items

1. In a complex question fallacy we may get questionable ideas either in the part of the premise or the conclusion

2. Lexical definitions are the kinds of definitions found in dictionaries and report the conventional definition of a term for the purpose of eliminating the ambiguity

3. Definition by genus and difference is the most effective technique of intentional definitions for producing all types of definitions

4. An intentional definition or a term usually determines the extensional definition of terms and vice versa

5. The fallacy of composition is committed when we legitimately transfer the attributes of component parts to the whole

Part II: Multiple Choices

1. Identify the statement which is correct about definition in logic

A. All terms under lexical definitions are vague and necessarily hold the truth value
B. The role of definiens is always projected to offer extensional description to the definiendum
C. In both persuasive and stipulative definitions the ultimate objective is to assign meaning which basically consists of truth
D. Words are said to be “vague” when there are borderline cases where it is impossible to decide whether they apply, because their meanings do not have sharp boundaries

2. A type of definition that assigns meaning of a term after new phenomena/development introduced is _____ 

A. Lexical definition
B. Theoretical definition
C. Persuasive definition
D. Stipulative definition

3. Identify the definition which is purely persuasive:

A. “Ocean” means those bodies of salt water with an area greater than five million square miles
B. “Suicide” means ruthless self-murdering
C. “Assault” means for legal purpose, a deliberate act resulting in the apprehension of an Immediate harmful of offensive contact
D. “Dinosaur” means an extinct reptile

4. Animal experimentation reduces our respect for life. If we don’t respect life, we are likely to be more and more tolerant of violent acts like war and murder. Soon our society will become a battlefield in which everyone constantly fears for their lives. It will be the end of civilization. To prevent this terrible consequence, we should make animal experimentation illegal right now. The fallacy here is:

A. Red herring
B. You too
C. Slippery slope
D. Straw man

5. Which one is wrong about ostensive definition?

A. It refers to the examples by means of pointing or by some other gesture
B. A serious limitation with this method is that it is highly sophisticated
C. It is among the extensional techniques of defining a term
D. It is quite important to teach children

6. “The devout Mary Cooper has promised to stop gaming and watching television in her house. Thus, Mary must have a gaming and TV addiction problem”. The fallacy here is:

A. Missing the point  
B. Accident
C. Amphiboly
D. Division

7.  Which of the following is sequence of terms is provided in the order of increasing intension?

A. Mammal, animal, University of Gondar student, rational animal, student
B. Animal, mammal, rational animal, student, University of Gondar student
C. University of Gondar student, student, rational animal, mammal, animal
D. Animal, rational animal, mammal, student, university of Gondar student

8. Identify the incorrect statement about a formal fallacy

A. It involves a defect in an argument
B. It’s committed only by deductive arguments
C. Both inductive and deductive arguments commit this fallacy
D. It can be identified through its structure

9. Which one of the following is not true about begging the question fallacy?

A. This fallacy committed when it conceal a questionably false key premise
B. The conclusion of this argument slightly rephrased the idea of the premise
C. It deals with the same thing both in the premise and the conclusion
D. It ignores the third possible alternatives

10. “Since the average life-span of an individual in Ethiopia is forty-three years, the leaders in this country grow old before they have time to learn the rudiments of good government?” The fallacy in this argument is:

A. Weak Analogy
B. Slippery Slope
C. Accident
D. Suppressed Evidence

11. If the American government strengthened security forces in Oregon 2022, then there will be fewer terrorist threats for the fans. There will be fewer terrorist threats for the fans. Thus the American government strengthened security forces in Oregon 2022. What do we say about this argument?

A. This argument contains a fallacy of ambiguity
B. This argument contains no fallacy
C. This argument contains a formal fallacy
D. This argument contains a fallacy of grammatical analogy

12. “Every effort by believers to prove God’s existence hasn’t been successful. Similarly, atheists’ attempts to disprove God’s existence have failed. Thus, we have strong grounds to believe in agnosticism”. The fallacy committed here is:

A. Appeal to ignorance
B. Appeal to God
C. Begging the question
D. Suppressed evidence

13. ‘The Oregon World Athletics Championships were not successful as expected. The major reason is the timing of the event. Clearly, holding such athletic events in the summer is a very bad idea. Summer weather is marked by excessive heat. Thus, the World Athletics Championships should be abolished completely’. The fallacy here is:

A. Straw man
B. Red herring
C. Missing the point
D. Slippery slope

14. ‘it’s impossible to be an atheist in a country where 98% of the population professes a belief in God/Allah. Thus, you too should believe in God’. The fallacy here is:

A. Appeal to snobbery
B. Appeal to vanity
C. Appeal to bandwagon
D. Appeal to god

15. ‘Yalemwork Jenberu won the Fana Lamrot music talent show because she made the judges cry’. The fallacy here is:

A. Appeal to people
B. Oversimplification
C. Post hoc
D. Non-causa pro causa

16. ‘Rophnan’s new album is so dope. Even Mulatu Astatque, Ethiopian’s most renowned composer, is supposedly impressed by it’. The fallacy here is:

A. Appeal to vanity
B. Appeal to snobbery
C. Appeal to bandwagon
D. Appeal to music

17. “You should never marry a feminist. If you do. she will boss you around. She will treat you with contempt and derision. You’ll be separated from your male buddies. You won’t have good sex. So, never marry a feminist”. The fallacy here is:

A. Post hoc
B. Oversimplification
C. Non-causa pro causa
D. Slippery slope

18. A sort of fallacy which is committed when an arguer diverts the attention of the listener by changing the original subject to some slightly different issue is _____ 

A. Straw man
B. Red Herring
C. Ad Hominem Circumstantial
D. Ad Hominem Tu Quoque

19. ‘Magic is real because I have experienced what can only be described as magical activity’. The type of fallacy committed in this argument is:

A. Suppressed evidence
B. False dichotomy
C. Begging the question
D. Complex question

20. ‘Her idea that environmental protection needs to be given priority is nonsense. I don’t have a problem to find evidence against her opinion. Just look at her face, she looks like a hungry dog. How this noble idea can be suggested by such an awful faced woman’. The fallacy committed here is:

A. Ad hominem Circumstantial
B. Ad hominem Abusive
C. Tu quoque fallacy
D. Appeal to Force

21. ‘you visit a new country and the lust person you meet in the airport is rude. You send a message to a friend back home that everyone in this new country is rude’. The fallacy is:

A. Weak Analogy
B. Accident
C. Converse Accident
D. Composition

22. ‘when women become pregnant, they encounter symptoms such as morning sickness, nausea and vomiting. Yesterday, Mr. Olivier shows the warning sign of pregnancy such as morning sickness, nausea and vomiting. Therefore, Mr. Olivier has become pregnant’. The fallacy is:

A. Slippery Slope Fallacy
B. Weak Analogy
C. False Cause Fallacy
D. Hasty Generalization

23. Which one of the following is false?

A. Fallacy of relevance is having the wrong kind of evidence
B. Fallacy of weak induction is having sufficient amount of evidence
C. Fallacy of presumption is confusion about what the evidence supports
D. Fallacy of ambiguity is confusion about what the evidence means

24. “Those who are not with us are our enemies” this fallacy is:

A. False cause
B. Post hoc fallacy
C. Straw man fallacy
D. False dichotomy

25. ‘Reptiles include snakes, lizards, and crocodilians’. This definition is:

A. Definition by subclass
B. Lexical definition
C. Enumerative definition
D. Precising definition

26. ‘Darwin’s theory of evolution is the root cause of many evils with which the world must now cope. The curse of communism, secular humanism, and rock and roll did emerge until after the publication of The Origin of Species’. This fallacy is known as:

A. Red herring
B. False cause fallacy
C. Slippery Slope
D. False dichotomy

27. Brhanu: ‘Based on the arguments I have presented, it is evident that it is morally wrong to use animals for food and clothing’.
Aregash: ‘But you are wearing a leather jacket and you have a roast beef sandwich in your hand. How can you say that using animals for food and clothing is wrong?’ The fallacy committed in the above argument is _____

A. Red herring
B. You too
C. Straw Man
D. Accident

28. ‘if such actions are not illegal, then they would not be prohibited by law’. The fallacy here is:

A. Appeal to ignorance
B. Begging the question
C. Amphiboly
D. Accident

29. ‘Stephen Hawking, the world’s greatest astrophysicist, claims that the world has already experienced serious greenhouse warming. Therefore, this is probably the case’. The fallacy here is:

A. Hasty Generalization
B. Begging the question
C. Ad hominem Abusive
D. Unqualified authority

30. ‘Of course my opponent is arguing against taxation of the rich. Just look at him He’s the richest person in this town. There’s no way someone like that could argue anything else’. The fallacy here is:

A. Ad Hominem Circumstantial
B. Ad Hominem Abusive
C. Straw Man
D. Tu quoque

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