Emerging Technologies Chapter 1 Note

Introduction to Emerging Technologies

Chapter 1

1.1  Evolution of Technologies

  • Emerging technology is a term generally used to describe a new technology
  • It is reserved for technologies that are creating or are expected to
    create significant social or economic effects
  • List of some currently available emerged technologies
    • Artificial Intelligence
    • Blockchain
    • Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality
    • Cloud Computing
    • Angular and React
    • DevOps
    • Internet of Things (IoT)
    • Intelligent Apps (I-Apps)
    • Big Data
    • Robotic Processor Automation (RPA)

1.1.1  Introduction to the Industrial Revolution (IR)

  • period of major industrialization and innovation that took place late
    1700s and early 1800s
  • society shifts from using tools to make products to use new sources of energy, such as coal
  • manufacturing of goods moved from small shops and homes to large factories
  • The revolution started in England
  • Some of industrial revolutions that changed the world
    • The steam engine
    • The age of science and mass production
    • Digital technology
    • Smart and autonomous systems

1.1.2 The Most Important Inventions of the Industrial Revolution

  • Transportation
    • The Steam Engine
    • The Railroad
    • The Diesel Engine
    • The Airplane
  • Communication
    • The Telegraph
    • The Transatlantic Cable
    • The
    • The Telephone
  • Industry: The Cotton Gin. The Sewing Machine. Electric Lights

1.1.3 Historical Background (IR 1.0, IR 2.0, IR 3.0) 

  • European countries industrialized after England: Belgium, France, and the German states
  • final cause of the Industrial Revolution was the effects created by the Agricultural
    : increase in food production
  • The four type of industries
    • Primary industry
      • involves getting raw materials 
      • e.g. mining, farming, and fishing
    • Secondary industry
      • manufacturing 
      • e.g. making cars and steel
    • Tertiary industries
      • provide a service 
      • e.g. teaching and nursing
    • Quaternary industry
      • research and development industries 
      • e.g. IT Industrial Revolution (IR 1.0)

  • first coined in the 1760s
  • transition to new manufacturing processes
  • From: hand production 👉 machines
  • increasing use of steam power Industrial Revolution (IR 2.0)

  • began somewhere in the 1870s
  • known as the Technological Revolution
  • widespread adoption of pre-existing technological systems such as
    telegraph and railroad
  • new technological systems introduced – electrical power Industrial Revolution (IR 3.0)

  • began from the late 1950s
  • known as Digital Revolution
  • transition from mechanical and analog electronic technology 👉 to digital electronics
  • Mass production and widespread use of digital logic circuits: computer, hand phones and the Internet Industrial Revolution (IR 4.0)

  • Present day
  • advancements in various technologies such as robotics, Internet of Things,
    additive manufacturing and autonomous vehicles
  • technologies mentioned above are what you call:
cyber physical
    • mechanism that is controlled or monitored by computer based algorithms
    • tightly integrated with the Internet and its users
    • E.g : Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines
  • Another major breakthrough that is associated with IR 4.0 is the
    adoption of
    Artificial Intelligence (AI)

1.2 Role of Data for Emerging Technologies

  • Data is
    • strategic asset
    • determines the future of science, technology, the economy, and possibly
    • It presents enormous challenges that in turn bring incredible innovation
      and economic opportunities

1.3 Enabling devices and network (Programmable devices)

  • In digital electronic systems, there are four basic kinds of devices:
    • Memory store random information
    • Microprocessorsexecute software instructions
    • Logicprovide specific functions e.g: signal processing, timing and control
    • Networkscollection of computers, servers & other devices connected to one another to
      allow the
      sharing of data e.g: Internet
  • Programmable devices
    • Chips
    • Incorporate field programmable logic devices (FPGAs), complex
      programmable logic devices (
      CPLD) and programmable logic devices (PLD)
    • Computer is programmable device

1.3.1 List of some Programmable devices

  • Lattice Semiconductor’s ECP3
  • Achronix Speedster SPD60 e.t.c
Service Enabling Devices (SEDs)
  • Modems
  • Conferencing equipment
  • Traditional channel service unit (CSU) e.t.c

1.4 Human to Machine Interaction (HMI)

  • communication and interaction between a human and a machine via a user interface
  • HCI (human-computer interaction)
    • study of how people interact with computers
    • consists of three parts:
      • the user
      • the computer
      • the ways they work together
  • The goal of HCI is to improve the interaction between users and

1.4.1 Disciplines Contributing to Human Computer Interaction (HCI)

  • Cognitive psychology
  • Computer science
  • Linguistics

1.5 Future Trends in Emerging Technologies

1.5.1 Emerging technology trends in 2019

  • 5G Networks
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • Autonomous Devices
  • Blockchain e.t.c

1.5.2 Some emerging technologies that will shape the future of you and your business

  • Chatbots
  • Virtual/augmented reality
  • Blockchain
  • Ephemeral Apps and
  • Artificial Intelligence are already shaping your life whether you like it or

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